NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) has recently become a more potential therapeutic candidate due to its anti-ageing properties in a murine model. In addition to this, NMN has demonstrated multiple pharmacological benefits in preclinical models for several conditions such as myocardial and cerebral ischemia, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes. This makes NMN an increasingly attractive treatment option for those looking for potential relief from these ailments.
Pharmacological Benefits of NMN
NAD+ precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) has been receiving a great deal of attention in recent years due to its potential pharmacological benefits. It has been demonstrated to have numerous pharmacological benefits in several preclinical models, including myocardial and cerebral ischemia, neurodegenerative disorders, and diabetes.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in clinical settings, especially in cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases. It occurs when tissue is deprived of oxygen due to either decreased blood flow or lack of oxygen. The damage that results from this type of injury is often severe and may be irreversible.
NMN has demonstrated protective effects against IRI in several animal models. Studies have found that NMN attenuates cardiac dysfunction, reduces infarct size, and inhibits inflammatory cytokines in an animal model of myocardial IRI. In another study, NMN protected the brain from stroke-like damage by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis.
Moreover, NMN has been shown to reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines following renal IRI. This suggests that NMN may be effective at protecting other organs against IRI as well.
Overall, these findings suggest that NMN could be a promising therapeutic candidate for IRI. Further research is needed to explore its efficacy in human patients with IRI-related conditions.
NMN has shown promising potential to provide relief from neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Studies have revealed that NMN could reduce amyloid-β levels and increase acetylcholine in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease.
In addition, it has been reported that NMN could modulate the expression of neuroinflammatory factors. The upregulation of these factors is known to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease.
In ICH, a large stroke that occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures and bleeds into the brain, NMN has been found to protect neurons and reduce oedema formation. It does this by increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes and reducing neuronal damage. Thus, NMN shows great promise in treating neurological disorders, making it a more potential therapeutic candidate.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most common metabolic diseases that affect millions of people globally. The current treatments for this condition focus on lifestyle modifications and/or medication, however, these approaches have been met with limited success.
In recent years, NMN has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for T2D. A study conducted by Chen et al. showed that NMN is able to improve glucose tolerance in a mouse model of T2D, through upregulation of the key regulatory proteins of glucose metabolism such as GLUT4 and PGC-1α. The findings of this research suggest that NMN can potentially be used to treat T2D, but further studies are needed to confirm these effects.
NMN may also be beneficial for diabetic complications. Studies have shown that NMN can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in the vasculature which can help protect against complications such as nephropathy and retinopathy. Additionally, NMN has been shown to reduce vascular stiffness which can help with the progression of atherosclerosis.
Obesity and Other Related Complications
NMN has demonstrated promising results in various animal models of obesity and related complications. A study in mice showed that NMN reduced body weight gain, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, oral administration of NMN to obese mice increased their physical activity and improved insulin sensitivity.
NMN may be useful in the prevention of obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, NMN has been shown to reduce the deposition of fat and collagen in the kidneys, which is a common complication of obesity and diabetes.
Recent studies have revealed that NMN has the potential to extend lifespan and delay the onset of ageing. In a study published in the journal Cell Metabolism, scientists from the University of Washington demonstrated that daily supplementation of NMN extended the lifespan of mice by up to 15%.
This anti-ageing effect of NMN was attributed to its ability to improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial health. The authors showed that NMN enhanced energy metabolism in both young and old mice, which was accompanied by increased mitochondrial activity.
The researchers also observed that NMN supplementation was associated with improved organ function, including better muscle strength and increased bone density. Additionally, mice supplemented with NMN showed an increase in resistance to age-associated diseases like cancer and liver dysfunction.
Overall, the findings of this study suggest that NMN has the potential to be used as an anti-ageing agent. More research is needed to better understand its effects on humans, but the results are promising.